CO2 FROM NEW VEHICLES
Challenge 1 of the Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050 calls on all Toyota regions globally to reduce CO2 emissions from new vehicles by 90 percent by 2050, from a 2010 baseline.
To achieve this challenge, Toyota is pursuing multiple pathways to reduce vehicle fuel consumption and GHG emissions and is committed to utilizing various forms of electrification including hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell technology. We try to match technologies to customer needs and government policies in each specific region. We evaluate vehicle powertrains, weight, aerodynamics and other design factors to boost vehicle efficiency while preserving the vehicle size, power, driving range and affordability that our customers demand — without sacrificing world-class vehicle quality, durability, reliability, safety features and performance.
There are several factors that must be weighed when considering the appropriate match. That‘s why we research driving trends, sociological behaviors, the changing energy and transportation landscape, the synergies between vehicle fuels and technologies, and the evolution of cities. Government initiatives can also influence the adoption of advanced technologies where the market and supporting infrastructure are still developing. Researching these factors helps us understand which technologies are best suited for the circumstances in a given market.
Going forward, hybrid technology will continue to be at the foundation of Toyota’s approach to minimizing the environmental impacts of gasoline-powered vehicles. Knowledge gained from hybrid development and deployment is helping Toyota accelerate the introduction of future powertrains that can utilize a wide variety of energy sources and fuels, including hydrogen and electricity. Toyota believes that we will utilize not only hybrid technology going forward but all electrified technologies, and has committed that by 2025 an electrified version of each vehicle will be offered.
Toyota and Lexus currently have 16 electrified vehicle models on the market in North America. This includes 14 hybrid electric vehicles, one plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and one hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric hybrid vehicle. Cumulative Toyota and Lexus hybrid sales in the region are over 3.5 million vehicles (as of July 2019). These numbers mean that Toyota will continue to use our portfolio of technologically advanced powertrains to develop and build our vehicles to readily adapt to future consumer needs while minimizing environmental impacts.
Looking further into the future, Toyota is collaborating with research entities, universities and companies
on materials science research, investing in artificial intelligence to help accelerate the design and discovery
of advanced materials. The research is helping to identify new advanced battery materials and fuel cell catalysts that can power future zero-emission and carbon-neutral vehicles. These efforts are helping to lay the groundwork for the future of clean energy to bring us even closer to achieving Toyota’s goal of reducing global average new vehicle CO2 emissions 90 percent by 2050.
For additional information related to vehicle CO2 emissions, please see the following:
Toyota’s approach to electrification Feature Story: Electric Avenue.
TMNA’s target to foster accelerated adoption of next-generations vehicles, see “Carbon Targets”.
2 Emissions”.Our fuel economy and vehicle GHG performance in the Performance section “Vehicle CO
Toyota's Hybrid Electric Fleet
||Type of Hybrid Electric Vehicle
||Fuel Cell Electric
|Toyota Prius Prime
|Toyota Prius c
|Toyota Avalon Hybrid
|Toyota Camry Hybrid
|Toyota Corolla Hybrid
|Toyota Highlander Hybrid
|Toyota RAV4 Hybrid
|Lexus ES 300h
|Lexus LC 500h
|Lexus LS 500h
|Lexus NX 300h
|Lexus RX 450h
|Lexus RX 450hL
|Lexus UX 250h
All listed models are available as of December 2019.
ADVANCING CONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
The Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) exemplifies key elements of our technology strategy for simultaneously reducing vehicle CO2 emissions, increasing fuel economy and boosting vehicle performance. Toyota is proud to announce new vehicle models that continue building upon the TNGA technology advancements showcased in previous North American Environmental Reports. The latest additions to our TNGA lineup1 include the new 2021 Mirai, 2021 RAV4 Plug-in Hybrid, 2020 Highlander and 2020 Corolla Hybrid, while in the Lexus lineup, the new 2019 ES demonstrates a balance of performance and luxury with revolutionary vehicle efficiency. Continuing the use of TNGA enables many of the groundbreaking technologies to be more easily shared with future vehicles and is helping Toyota realize our commitment to “making ever-better cars.” TNGA‘s integrated development supports the concept of total optimization for a lightweight, streamlined, high-performance platform and powertrain unit. TNGA helps us meet consumers‘ needs while continuing to improve the efficiency of our vehicles.
The completely redesigned 2021 Mirai fuel cell electric vehicle, with a targeted 30 percent increase in range, will go on sale in 2020.
2021 MIRAI FCEV
Toyota is excited to announce a completely redesigned 2021 Mirai Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) based on Toyota’s premium rear-wheel drive TNGA platform. The new Mirai offers improved passenger room, comfort and a new driving experience than its pioneering forerunner. A targeted 30 percent increase in range is achieved by improved fuel cell system performance and increased hydrogen storage capacity. At its core, the Mirai is an electric vehicle, but it never needs to be plugged in to recharge. An FCEV generates its own electricity onboard from hydrogen and oxygen, with water as the only tailpipe emission. A fill-up takes just about five minutes at a hydrogen fueling station. The second-generation Mirai, which will go on sale in late 2020, will deliver a significant evolution of Toyota’s hydrogen FCEV powertrain technology and offer a critical look into the future.
2021 RAV4 PHEV
The 2021 Toyota RAV4 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) utilizes TNGA and offers the most powerful hybrid RAV4 ever. Unlike any other, the new RAV4 plug-in hybrid will be celebrated by its all-electric range, spirited acceleration, nimble handling and impeccable style. The 2021 RAV4 PHEV was introduced in November 2019 at the Los Angeles International Auto Show and more details can be found in the associated press release.
2020 TOYOTA HIGHLANDER
The 2020 Highlander utilizes TNGA and offers improved conventional and hybrid powertrain. The 295-horsepower 3.5-liter V6 utilizes a D-4S Injection system combining direct fuel injection with port fuel injectors to help optimize efficiency, power and emissions in all conditions. The new-generation Toyota Hybrid System in the 2020 Highlander Hybrid combines a high-efficiency 2.5-liter DOHC four-cylinder engine with two electric motors in a system that‘s more compact and more efficient than before. This leads to a combined miles per gallon (mpg) that is 17 percent better than the previous generation Highlander Hybrid. Additionally, the battery pack is small enough to be installed under the rear seats, so it doesn’t take up any cargo or passenger space and it continues to provide customers the utility they need.
Introducing the first-ever Toyota Corolla with a hybrid powertrain and an EPA estimated combined fuel economy of 55 mpg.
2020 TOYOTA COROLLA
The newly designed 2020 Toyota Corolla sedan utilizes the same TNGA 2.0-liter inline four-cylinder Dynamic Force direct-injection from the 2019 hatchback. In addition to the advanced TNGA 2.0- liter engine, we are introducing the first-ever Corolla with a hybrid powertrain. The new hybrid system combines a 1.8-liter four-cylinder gasoline engine with two motor/generators paired with an electronically controlled planetary- type continuously variable transmission (CVT) providing excellent efficiency and performance. This new hybrid system is paired with a smaller battery pack to ensure consumers have the same utility as they have come to expect with the Corolla. This first- ever Corolla Hybrid continues the “fun to drive” identity while having an EPA estimated combined fuel economy of 55 mpg.
2019 LEXUS ES
Following in the path of the LC and LS flagship coupe and sedan, the ES is the latest expression of the new generation of Lexus vehicles. Specifically, in the ES 300h a new, fourth-generation Hybrid Drive System couples an ultra-efficient, Atkinson cycle 2.5-liter, four-cylinder gas engine with a lighter, more compact, more power dense electric motor and self-charging hybrid system. The ES hybrid system achieves excellent fuel efficiency and powerful acceleration due to the new hybrid transaxle with improved efficient internal power flow and a higher-efficiency power control unit. A new, more compact hybrid battery is located beneath the rear seats, contributing to ideal weight balance and low center of gravity, while enlarging cargo space. All of this allows the Lexus ES 300h to have an EPA estimated combined fuel economy of 44 mpg, making it one of the most fuel-efficient luxury vehicles without a plug.
CO2 FROM DEALERS & SUPPLIERS
Challenge 2 of the Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050 calls on us to engage with our dealers and suppliers to support their efforts to eliminate GHG emissions by 2050.
There are approximately 1,850 Toyota and Lexus dealerships in the United States, Canada and Mexico, all independently owned franchises. The Toyota and Lexus brands work with their dealerships on an individual basis, providing vendor support for products and programs that improve energy efficiency and save money. Through efforts like the Toyota Image II facility initiative and Lexus Vision USA, dealerships incorporate the best of sales and retail by including features such as LED lighting and windows that allow for natural light.
Toyota of Vallejo installed a 251 kW rooftop solar system that is offsetting an average of 61 percent of the dealership’s electricity needs.
One dealership in California has leveraged these features and is not only saving energy and money but is also annually avoiding 275 metric tons of GHG emissions, equivalent to the emissions from about 58 passenger vehicles driven for one year. Toyota of Vallejo installed a 251 kilowatt rooftop solar system, designed by Cool Earth Solar, a SunPower® commercial dealer. The system covers about half of the 30,000 square foot rooftop, offsetting an average of 61 percent of the dealership’s electricity needs.
By combining the rooftop system with an LED lighting retrofit on the display lot, the dealership is saving over $100,000 – or 85 percent – of its annual electric bill. With the LED retrofit plus the addition of a 30 percent federal investment tax credit, Toyota of Vallejo’s rooftop system is expected to pay for itself in just over four years and deliver a projected $3.8 million in savings over 25 years.
And while the rooftop system may be hidden from view, an energy monitor installed in the customer lounge provides a visible reminder of the clean energy produced on a daily, weekly and monthly basis. Now, customers who once watched the flat-screen TV are drawn to the energy monitor. Going solar is showing customers that the dealership is focused on sustainability.
See “Toyota/Lexus LEED® Dealerships” for information on dealership LEED® certifications by brand.
When considering the full life cycle impacts of manufacturing, distributing and driving vehicles, supply chain impacts exceed our own. That’s why TMNA is a member of U.S. EPA’s Suppliers Partnership for the Environment (SP), an innovative partnership between automobile original equipment manufacturers, their suppliers and EPA. SP provides a forum for small, mid-sized and large automotive suppliers to work together, learn from each other and share environmental best practices.
We are focusing our supplier engagement activities with third-party logistics carriers. According to the International Transport Forum and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), trade-related freight transport emissions will increase by almost a factor of four between 2010 and 2050. Experts project that by 2050, global freight transport emissions will surpass those from passenger vehicles.
Toyota’s logistics network is a complex operation that ensures smooth shipping and delivery of vehicles, parts and accessories, from the supplier to the plant, to Toyota’s distribution centers, and ultimately to dealerships and customers. Through the use of returnable shipping containers, packaging reductions, light weighting and densification, our own logistics operation has reduced waste, fuel consumption and GHG emissions, and we have helped our third-party logistics carriers do the same.
We set a target to reduce the GHG intensity of both owned and third-party logistics by 5 percent by fiscal year 2021, from a 2016 baseline. Fiscal year 2019 results can be found here.
Toyota’s production control logistics group – which procures the parts and materials used to manufacture our vehicles – is working on a strategy to reduce GHG emissions from two primary sources: over the road transportation (OTR) and cross dock yard operations. The group’s focus is converting diesel-powered OTR equipment to alternative fuels such as renewable compressed natural gas, and to trial alternative power systems at the cross docks such as electric shunt trucks.
United Road, one of our auto-hauler highway partners, is a U.S. EPA SmartWay member and has implemented several initiatives to reduce fuel consumption and GHG emissions. For example, an electric auxiliary power unit is installed on their trucks that allows drivers in sleeper trucks to maintain cabin temperature without the truck running, which saves 1.2 gallons of diesel fuel per hour. Additionally, United Road has more than 900 trucks equipped with diesel particulate filters or diesel exhaust fluid and 100 such new units currently on order.
Crowley Logistics introduced two of the world’s first combination container/roll on-roll off (ConRo) ships powered by liquified natural gas (LNG). These vessels are used to deliver Toyota vehicles between Jacksonville (Florida) and Puerto Rico. Fueling the ships with LNG reduces emissions significantly, including a 100 percent reduction in sulfur oxide (SOx) and particulate matter (PM), a 92 percent reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOx), and a reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) of more than 35 percent per container, compared with current fossil fuels.
ZERO-EMISSIONS FREIGHT PROJECT
Over 16,000 trucks serve the Los Angeles and Long Beach port complexes, North America’s largest trade gateway for containerized cargo. That number is estimated to double by 2030. Freight transport is a significant — and growing — contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.
The Zero-and-Near-Zero Emission Freight Facilities project (ZANZEFF) provides a large-scale “Shore-to-Store” hydrogen fuel cell electric technology framework for freight facilities. The initiative is expected to help reduce emissions by over 453 metric tons of CO2e and NOx, ROG and PM10 by 0.72 weighted tons.
The Port of Los Angeles, a global maritime leader with respect to zero-emission and near-zero emission technology testing and adoption, will develop ZANZEFF in three phases:
- Roll out of 10 new zero-emissions hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric heavy-duty trucks (FCETs) utilizing the Kenworth T680 Class 8 model combined with Toyota’s fuel cell electric technology. The FCETs will ultimately move cargo from the Los Angeles and Long Beach ports throughout the Los Angeles area, the Inland Empire, the Port of Hueneme, and eventually to Merced. Four of the ZANZEFF trucks will be operated by Toyota Logistics Services, three by United Parcel Services, two by Total Transportation Services Inc., and one by Southern Counties Express. This phase is designed to kick- start the leap to a new class of goods movement vehicles, while reducing emissions in disadvantaged communities in these areas.
- Development of two new large-capacity heavy-duty hydrogen fueling stations by Shell in Wilmington and Ontario, California. The two new stations will join three additional stations located at Toyota Logistics Services in Long Beach and Gardena R&D facilities to form an integrated, five station heavy- duty hydrogen fueling network for the Los Angeles basin. Together, these stations will provide multiple sources of hydrogen throughout the region, including over one ton of 100 percent renewable hydrogen per day at the Toyota Logistics Services station to be operated by Shell, and important research and development advances at a pair of stations operated by Air Liquide, all enabling zero-emissions freight transport.
- Expanded use of zero-emissions technology in cargo terminal and warehouse environments, including the first two zero-emissions yard tractors to be operated at the Port of Hueneme, as well as the expanded use of zero-emissions forklifts at Toyota’s vehicle logistics warehouse at the Port of Long Beach.
“The collaboration between the Port of Los Angeles, Kenworth, Toyota and Shell is providing an excellent opportunity to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell electric technology in both drayage service and regional haul commercial vehicle applications operating in Southern California,” said Mike Dozier, general manager of Kenworth Truck Company and PACCAR vice president. “The performance of the 10 Kenworth Class 8 trucks being developed under this program is targeted to meet or exceed that of a diesel-powered truck, while producing water as the only emissions byproduct.”
The new generation zero-emission truck expands on the capabilities of Toyota’s first two Project Portal Proof of Concept trucks through enhanced capability, packaging, and performance, with an estimated range of more than 300 miles per fill, twice that of a typical drayage trucks’ average daily duty cycle. Since operations began in April 2017, the Project Portal “Alpha” and “Beta” Proof of Concept Class 8 trucks have logged more than 14,000 miles of testing and real-world drayage operations in and around the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach while emitting nothing but water vapor.
Ten Kenworth/Toyota FCETs under the ZANZEFF project are being rolled out in southern California, increasing the ports‘ zero-emission trucking capacity and further reducing the environmental impact of drayage operations.
“Toyota is committed to hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric technology as a powertrain for the future because it‘s a clean, scalable platform that can meet a broad range of mobility needs with zero emissions,” said Bob Carter, executive vice president of sales at TMNA. “The ZANZEFF collaboration and the innovative ‘Shore-to-Store‘ project allow us to move heavy-duty truck fuel cell electric technology towards commercialization.”
CARB awarded $41 million dollars to the Port of Los Angeles for the ZANZEFF project as part of California Climate Investments, a California initiative that puts billions of cap-and-trade dollars to work reducing greenhouse gas emissions, strengthening the economy and improving public health and the environment, particularly in disadvantaged communities.
CO2 FROM OPERATIONS
Challenge 3 of the Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050 calls on us to eliminate all CO2 emissions from the use of energy at our facilities.
During fiscal year 2019, we used nearly 4 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity and natural gas in our North American operations. We consumed or offset almost 56 million kWh of renewable energy in North America during fiscal year 2019, mostly through onsite solar and the purchase of renewable energy credits. Toyota is one of the top 20 corporate users of installed onsite solar capacity in the U.S., according to the Solar Energy Industries Association.
Our use of electricity and natural gas resulted in emissions of 1.2 million metric tons of CO2e.
We track certain GHG reduction projects through our corporate production engineering group; not all projects implemented by the plants are captured. Of the projects we tracked in fiscal year 2019, we counted emissions reductions from manufacturing plant activities of more than 28,000 metric tons of CO2e. In addition to ongoing LED lighting retrofits, our plants and other facilities implement measures, such as installing variable frequency drives on cooling water pumps, that impact daily operations and reduce energy consumption. For example:
- Toyota Canada’s vehicle processing centers (VPCs) have replaced their huge pylons with smaller, more energy-efficient signs, and at the Montreal VPC, vehicles are kept inside the workshop so that they don’t need to idle to warm up.
- Team members at Toyota’s assembly plant in Tijuana, Mexico, installed variable frequency drives in the HVAC system and high efficiency motors in the air supply fan, which saves 144,000 kWh and 759 metric tons of CO2e per year.
- At our assembly plant in Kentucky, team members added automatic shutoff to the cleaning mode on the HVAC systems in the paint booths. Previously, the cleaning mode would be turned on and left running over the weekend. Now, it shuts off after two hours. Similarly, the stamping conveyor line was running all the time. Now, the conveyors are shut down when the machine is not stamping parts. These two changes have led to annual savings of 4.3 million kWh and 2,300 metric tons of CO2e.
- Our powertrain plant in Huntsville, Alabama, supports high school interns each summer to encourage interest in the Advanced Manufacturing Technician degree program, a two-year associates degree program in industrial maintenance from Calhoun Community College. During the summer of 2018, four soon-to-be high school seniors – two from Mae Jemison High School and two from New Century Technology High School – worked at the plant five days a week for six weeks. They participated in a plant-wide environmental scavenger hunt and found several opportunities to use less energy. Their efforts resulted in saving 116,000 kWh, 62 metric tons of CO2e and more than $8,000.
See “Greenhouse Gas Emissions” for GHG emissions performance data.
See “GHG Emissions Per Vehicle Produced” for performance data related to GHG emissions per vehicle produced.
. See “Awards” for information on how energy savings earned Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama an Air Pollution Control Award
. See “Awards” /for information on TMNA’s four ENERGY STAR Building certifications
RENEWABLE POWER THROUGH VPPAS
Toyota Motor North America (TMNA) is committing to aggressively reduce its carbon output in North America by entering into Virtual Power Purchase Agreements (VPPAs). We will use them to reduce GHG emissions from our North American operations by up to 40 percent over the next three years. The move represents another major step towards Toyota’s Environmental Challenge 2050 goal of cutting global GHG emissions from plant operations to zero by the year 2050.
Under the VPPAs, TMNA is contracting with renewable energy providers to generate wind and solar power that will be provided directly to regional electric grids. The supply of renewable power is expected to reduce use of fossil fuels while improving the sustainability of the electric grid in the area.
By powering our operations from the enhanced grid and applying Renewable Energy Credits earned by funding the generation of renewable electricity, Toyota expects to substantially offset emissions from our facilities in North America.
“Toyota has long been defined by its commitment to responsible environmental practices, and we’re proud to build upon that great legacy,” said Kevin Butt, regional director of Environmental Sustainability for TMNA. “We are committed to setting an example of sustainability that goes beyond vehicles to show how a company can significantly reduce the environmental impact of its operations. By cutting our North American GHG emissions by up to 40 percent, we will be that much closer to our goal of having a net positive impact on the environment by the middle of this century.”
Toyota’s VPPA program is the result of more than six years of research into how best to reduce and offset emissions from the company’s operations, working in partnership with MIT, the National Renewable Energy Lab, the Rocky Mountain Institute, and others. It is part of a wider effort across the company to reduce the environmental impact of enterprise operations as we also work to limit vehicle emissions.