“CARBON” IS ONE OF TOYOTA’S FOUR FOCUS AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA. OUR CARBON STRATEGY ADDRESSES CHALLENGES 1, 2 AND 3 OF THE TOYOTA ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE 2050 THROUGH REDUCING CO2 EMISSIONS FROM NEW VEHICLES, ELIMINATING CO2 EMISSIONS FROM MANUFACTURING AND SHARING OUR KNOW-HOW WITH OTHERS. CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECTS PEOPLE IN ALL PARTS OF THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY. WE ARE WORKING AT EVERY STAGE OF THE VEHICLE LIFE CYCLE TO HELP THE WORLD BUILD A LOW CARBON FUTURE.
INTRODUCTION TO CARBON
Earth’s average temperature has risen over the past century. Human influence on the climate system is clear: Anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased since the pre-industrial era driven largely by economic and population growth. From 2000 to 2010, emissions were the highest in history.2
Continued emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) – including carbon dioxide – is expected to cause further warming and long-lasting changes in all components of the climate system, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive and likely irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems. Surface temperature is projected to rise over the 21st century under all assessed emission scenarios. It is very likely that heat waves will occur more often and last longer, and that extreme precipitation and storm events will become more intense and frequent in many regions. The ocean will continue to warm and acidify, and global mean sea level to rise.
The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes climate risk can only be limited by substantial and sustained reductions in GHG emissions, together with adaptation measures.
To address climate change issues, we’ve developed a North American strategy through 2050. To learn about our strategy and how it relates to Toyota’s global Environmental Challenge 2050, read our Carbon Position Statement.
06 / TMNA’s Approach to a Low Carbon Society
Our CARBON focus area relates to Challenges 1, 2 and 3 of Toyota’s Environmental Challenge 2050. This challenge recognizes climate change as a global issue that must be addressed across the vehicle life cycle. Toyota is ready to do our part to build a low carbon future. Here in North America, we developed an approach to conquering this challenge that involves three actions:
2 Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report”
Between fiscal years 2017 and 2021, Toyota Motor North America (TMNA) will:
Foster Accelerated Adoption of Next-Generation Vehicles by Continuously Supporting Education and Infrastructure Deployment (on track)
We engage in a variety of activities to educate customers and the public about our advanced technology vehicles. For example, we host ride and drive events, participate in demonstration programs with universities and government agencies, and support influential opinion leader forums such as the Aspen Institute and the Environmental Media Awards.
Toyota is a Steering Committee member and former co-chair of the Hydrogen Council, a global initiative of leading energy, transport and industry companies with a united vision and long-term ambition for hydrogen to foster the transition to a low carbon society. Launched at the 2017 World Economic Forum in Davos, the Council is led by two Co-Chairs from different geographies and sectors, currently represented by Air Liquide and Hyundai.
The Hydrogen Council works with and provides recommendations to several key stakeholders such as policy makers, investors, international agencies and civil society to achieve these goals. For example, on September 18, 2017, the Hydrogen Council hosted its inaugural Investor Day – Hydrogen: Ready to Scale. As an affiliate event of New York Climate Week, the ground-breaking event boasted more than 160 investors, industry experts and policy stakeholders. Tom Stricker, vice president of Product Regulatory Affairs for TMNA, spoke on a panel “Market Ready Hydrogen Technologies.” Panels covered how hydrogen empowers the energy transition, why these technologies are now considered market-ready, existing business cases and investment opportunities, and the strategies and tools required for scale deployment.
Hydrogen fueling stations compress and cool processed hydrogen to deliver it safely to fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). Hydrogen stations operate a lot like gasoline stations and it takes only about five minutes to refill the tank of Toyota’s Mirai.
The availability of hydrogen fueling infrastructure is one of the most important elements in commercializing fuel cell electric vehicles like the Mirai. Toyota Canada has been working closely with partners over the past year to ensure the introduction of an appropriate fueling infrastructure in Quebec province. In June 2018, Canada’s first public retail hydrogen refueling station opened in Vancouver. Toyota will launch Mirai in Quebec in early 2019.
The University of California Irvine estimates only 68 stations are needed to support 10,000 fuel cell electric vehicles state-wide, and 35 are already operating. Additionally, the state of California has earmarked $200 million for as many as 100 more hydrogen stations in the next several years. Shell, in partnership with Toyota, will be installing hydrogen refueling equipment at seven new retail stations in California. Furthermore, Toyota has helped fund the development of hydrogen infrastructure that is already supporting a growing community of thousands of FCEV drivers:
- FirstElement Fuels, as part of a financial agreement with Toyota, is working to develop an integrated and reliable network of fueling stations across California in target market locations approved by Toyota and consistent with the California Fuel Cell Partnership Road Map. As of June 2018, FirstElement has successfully opened 19 stations and has been awarded government grants to develop 12 more.
- Industrial gas supplier Linde LLC opened a hydrogen fueling station on Toyota-owned property in San Ramon, California, adjacent to Toyota’s San Francisco Regional Office and Parts Distribution Center. This location serves local and regional customers and functions as an important connector site between the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys and the San Francisco Bay Area.
- In the northeastern United States, Toyota and Air Liquide are collaborating to develop and supply a fully integrated hydrogen fueling infrastructure network of 12 stations to support the introduction of Mirai on the East Coast.
See also the target to advance the development of low carbon vehicle fuels for information on the hydrogen refueling station being built at Toyota’s logistics operation at the Port of Long Beach in California.
Advance the development of low carbon vehicle fuels (on track)
The promise of zero-emission vehicles is fulfilled only when the fuel these vehicles use is created in a way that doesn’t create emissions. This is true for both electricity and hydrogen. TMNA is working on developing renewable hydrogen fuel for the hydrogen fuel cell electric truck being piloted at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach.
Equilon Enterprises LLC, doing business as Shell Oil Products US (Shell), and Toyota have been awarded $8 million by the California Energy Commission (CEC) to develop the first hydrogen-truck refueling station at the Port of Long Beach. The funding forms part of the CEC’s Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program, which helps develop hydrogen and electric infrastructure at ports, warehousing and distribution centers in California.
Shell and Toyota expect the facility to encourage the use of zero-emission hydrogen fuel cell electric trucks in and around Long Beach, one of the world’s largest freight hubs.
Shell will build, own and operate a hydrogen station at the Toyota Logistics Services location at the Port of Long Beach, fueling Toyota’s Project Portal heavy-duty hydrogen fuel cell electric proof of concept truck and public fleets. Shell will source its hydrogen from Toyota’s adjacent Tri-Gen facility, which will produce hydrogen from 100 percent renewable bio-gas. Please see here for more information on the Tri-Gen facility.
Implement a mobility project in North America that reduces congestion and GHGs (on track)
Toyota President Akio Toyoda addressed TMNA team members in his January 2018 global company address, and the primary message was that Toyota is transitioning from a car company to a mobility company. To support this goal, TMNA is researching, partnering and piloting different types of mobility, many of which don’t involve owning a vehicle. In 2018, TMNA launched a shared commute program at our new North American headquarters in Plano, Texas. The goal of the program is to reduce both the environmental and societal impacts of single-occupancy vehicles during peak commute times. The app-based, flexible system allows team members to commute together using hybrid Toyota vehicles located in easily accessible locations in neighborhoods and near heavy commute corridors. Our experience with this program is providing us with key insights on how to market and operationalize this type of program, the primary motivations for using (or not using) the program, and how to maintain rider loyalty. These are all important lessons learned that will help us improve and develop future programs.
Toyota is offering a shared ride program at the headquarters campus in Plano, Texas, using Toyota hybrid vehicles, such as Camry Hybrid.
Reduce absolute GHG emissions (Scopes 1 and 2) from North American operations 15 percent, from a baseline of fiscal year 2016 (on track)
Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increased between fiscal years 2017 and 2018. Despite an overall decrease in production, Toyota assembled more trucks at our plants in Texas and Mexico, where GHG emission factors are higher than at plants where production decreased.
We recently developed a GHG reduction plan for our sites that addresses GHG and energy efficiency as well as renewable energy use. Once the projects in this plan come online, we expect to see significant decreases in total emissions.
07 / GHG Emissions from Toyota’s North American Operations
*Includes Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions from all Toyota Motor North America operations, including manufacturing, R&D, logistics and offices.
Reduce GHG emissions intensity from all logistics (owned and third-party) by 5 percent, from a baseline of fiscal year 2016 (on track)
For fiscal year 2018, we report GHG intensity from owned and third-party U.S. service parts/accessories and vehicle logistics from all transport modes (trucking, marine, air and rail). We have restated data from previous years to account for a larger scope (previously, we only reported data from vehicle logistics). We will include manufacturing production control logistics in next year’s report.
These logistics operations improved GHG intensity by nearly 14 percent compared to the baseline year (fiscal year 2016). We expect to see continued improvements as additional third-party carriers adopt GHG reduction plans.
REDUCING NEW VEHICLE CO2 EMISSIONS
The combustion of gasoline while driving results in CO2 emissions. Challenge 1 of the Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050 calls on all Toyota regions globally to reduce CO2 emissions from new vehicles by 90 percent by 2050, from a 2010 baseline.
To achieve this challenge, Toyota is pursuing multiple pathways to reduce vehicle fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in our global markets. We try to best match technologies to customer needs and government policies in each specific region. We evaluate vehicle powertrains, weight, aerodynamics and other design factors to boost vehicle efficiency while preserving the vehicle size, power, driving range and affordability that our customers demand — without sacrificing world-class vehicle safety features and performance.
There are several factors that must be weighed when considering the appropriate match. That’s why we research driving trends, sociological behaviors, the changing energy and transportation landscape, and the evolution of cities. Government initiatives can also influence the adoption of advanced technologies where the market and supporting infrastructure are still developing. Researching these factors helps us understand which technologies are best suited for the circumstances in a given market.
Although the continued evolution of vehicle technology is critical to achieving zero emissions, vehicles and fuels must be evaluated as a system. That’s why our vehicle portfolio approach considers the diversity of alternative transportation fuels currently available as well as those on the horizon.
For additional information related to vehicle CO2 emissions in other sections of this report, please see the following:
- For our approach to electrification, see our feature story.
- TMNA’s target to foster accelerated adoption of next-generations vehicles.
- TMNA’s target to advance the development of low carbon vehicle fuels.
- Project Portal 2.0, the heavy-duty hydrogen fuel cell electric truck being piloted at the Los Angeles ports.
- For information related to our fuel economy and vehicle GHG performance, see the Performance section (Vehicle CO2 Emissions).
Advancing Conventional Technology
In last year’s environmental report, we highlighted the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) Camry and Camry Hybrid, which both exemplify key elements of our technology strategy for simultaneously reducing vehicle CO2 emissions, increasing fuel economy and boosting vehicle performance. Toyota is proud to announce new vehicle models that build upon the technology advancements showcased by the 2018 Camry. In the Toyota lineup are the new 2019 Avalon, Corolla and RAV4, while in the Lexus lineup, the new 2018 LS and 2019 UX demonstrate a balance of performance and luxury with groundbreaking vehicle efficiency. Continuing the use of TNGA enables many of the groundbreaking technologies to be more easily shared with future vehicles and is helping Toyota realize our commitment to “making ever-better cars.” TNGA’s integrated development supports the concept of total optimization for a lightweight, streamlined, high-performance platform and powertrain unit. TNGA helps us meet consumers’ needs while continuing to improve the efficiency of our vehicles.
2019 TOYOTA Avalon
The 2019 Avalon follows the lead of the 2018 Camry by utilizing two TNGA powertrains: a punchy 3.5-liter V6 and a 2.5-liter Dynamic Force four-cylinder Toyota Hybrid System II. Compared to its predecessor, the new Avalon Hybrid is more fuel-efficient with a combined EPA-estimated rating of 44 mpg, runs cleaner and is more powerful.
2019 TOYOTA RAV4
The completely redesigned 2019 RAV4 is powered by the same 2.5-liter Dynamic Force engine used in the Avalon and Camry to bring leading fuel efficiency to Toyota’s crossover segment. These advancements encompass Toyota's vast catalog of advanced engine technologies when paired with chassis innovations, resulting in improved aerodynamics, handling and fuel efficiency.
2019 Toyota Corolla hatchback
The newly designed 2019 Toyota Corolla Hatchback unveils the new TNGA 2.0-liter inline four-cylinder Dynamic Force direct-injection engine that is both smaller and lighter than the engine it replaces. In addition to the advanced TNGA engine embodying technologies like the 2.5-liter version described above, aluminum and high- and ultra-high tensile steel lighten the Corolla Hatchback’s chassis and body while the vehicle structure employs a mixture of adhesives, spot welding and additional bracing. The 2019 Corolla Hatchback’s torsional rigidity is a massive 60 percent improved compared to its predecessor. The total package enhances vehicle responsiveness while reducing fuel consumption. This commitment to overall vehicle development for a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle makes the new 2019 Corolla Hatchback better for the environment than the previous model while giving it a “fun-to-drive” identity. The 2019 Corolla Hatchback XSE (with automatic CVT) has a preliminary 33 combined mpg (estimated by Toyota).
2018 Lexus LS 500 hybrid
The 2018 Lexus LS 500 Hybrid made its debut at the beginning of 2018 and showcases the Lexus brand’s commitment to innovative and groundbreaking technologies in the luxury car segments. The Lexus LS 500h utilizes a 10-speed transmission combined with the Multi-Stage Hybrid System, resulting in breakthrough technology that pairs stepped gears and the newly developed Lexus hybrid system with a compact and lightweight lithium-ion battery. Additionally, the LS 500h can select operating points for high system efficiency from the low-speed range to the high-speed range, thus expanding the range of EV driving. This allows the LS 500h to achieve an exhilarating performance driving experience while being highly fuel-efficient. The 2018 Lexus LS 500h has a combined EPA-estimated fuel economy rating of 28 mpg.
2019 Lexus UX
The brand-new 2019 Lexus UX debuted at the end of 2018 and further marks a series of technical innovations, including the first use of the new global architecture platform named GA-C. GA-C delivers fundamental high structural rigidity and a low center of gravity, resulting in excellent ride quality and stability. Aiding this is the use of lightweight aluminum for the side doors, fenders and hood as well as a resin material for the back door. New powertrains are also deployed for the first time: a new 2.0-liter engine that reaps the performance and fuel economy benefits of high thermal efficiency, and a new mid-power, fourth generation self-charging hybrid system. Efforts were made to reduce any "rubber band" effect in the operation of the hybrid system and transmission by optimizing the level of electric motor assistance and engine rpm to generate a linear acceleration feel, which avoids delays in acceleration with the engine running at high revs. An additional E-Four system gives the UX 250h all-wheel drive capability by placing an additional electric motor on the rear axle, automatically optimizing power when accelerating, cornering or driving on slippery surfaces.
The Lexus UX 250h debuted at the end of 2018 and uses lightweight aluminum for the side doors, fenders and hood as well as a resin material for the back door. The UX Hybrid has a preliminary combined fuel economy rating of 38 mpg (estimated by Lexus).
Bridging to the Future
Going forward, hybrid technology will continue to be at the foundation of Toyota’s approach to minimizing the environmental impacts of gasoline-powered vehicles. Knowledge gained from hybrid development and deployment is helping Toyota accelerate the introduction of future powertrains that can utilize a wide variety of energy sources and fuels, including hydrogen and electricity.
Toyota and Lexus currently have 14 conventional hybrid models, one plug-in hybrid model and one hydrogen fuel cell electric hybrid model on the market in North America with cumulative Toyota and Lexus hybrid sales in the region of over 3.3 million vehicles (as of July 2018). These numbers mean that Toyota will continue to use our portfolio of technologically advanced powertrains to develop and build our vehicles to readily adapt to future consumer needs while minimizing environmental impacts.
Looking further into the future, the Toyota Research Institute (TRI) is collaborating with research entities, universities and companies on materials science research, investing approximately $35 million over the next four years in research that uses artificial intelligence to help accelerate the design and discovery of advanced materials. Initially, the program will aim to help revolutionize materials science and identify new advanced battery materials and fuel cell catalysts that can power future zero-emission and carbon-neutral vehicles. These efforts will help lay the groundwork for the future of clean energy and bring us even closer to achieving Toyota’s goal of reducing global average new vehicle CO2 emissions 90 percent by 2050.
09 / Toyota's Hybrid Electric Fleet
Hybrid electric vehicles use batteries plus one other fuel source, either hydrogen (fuel cell electric hybrid) or gasoline (plug-in electric hybrid or gasoline-electric hybrid). The current fleet of Toyota and Lexus hybrid electric vehicles includes:
|Model||Type of Hybrid Electric Vehicle|
|Toyota Mirai||Fuel Cell Electric|
|Toyota Prius Prime||Plug-in Gasoline-Electric|
|Toyota Prius c||Gasoline-Electric|
|Toyota Avalon Hybrid||Gasoline-Electric|
|Toyota Camry Hybrid||Gasoline-Electric|
|Toyota Highlander Hybrid||Gasoline-Electric|
|Toyota RAV4 Hybrid||Gasoline-Electric|
|Lexus ES 300h||Gasoline-Electric|
|Lexus GS 450h||Gasoline-Electric|
|Lexus LC 500h||Gasoline-Electric|
|Lexus LS 500h||Gasoline-Electric|
|Lexus NX 300h||Gasoline-Electric|
|Lexus RX 450h||Gasoline-Electric|
|Lexus RX 450hL||Gasoline-Electric|
All 16 Toyota and Lexus advanced technology vehicles were available during 2018. All but the Lexus UX were offered as 2018 models; the UX is a 2019 model year vehicle.
ELIMINATING CO2 FROM OPERATIONS
At Toyota, we mainly use four types of energy – electricity and natural gas to power our sites, and diesel and gasoline in our logistics operations. Challenge 3 of the Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050 calls on us to eliminate all CO2 emissions from the use of all types of energy at our facilities and in logistics. To put us on this path, we established targets to reduce GHG emissions from our operations by 15 percent and improve GHG emissions intensity in logistics by 5 percent, both by the end of fiscal year 2021. Our strategy for achieving these targets focuses on three activities: reducing our use of electricity and natural gas, investing in renewable energy, and making our logistics operations more fuel-efficient.
- For performance data related to our 15 percent GHG reduction target, see here.
- For performance data related to our GHG emissions per vehicle produced, see Figure P10.
- For performance data related to our 5 percent GHG intensity target for logistics, see here.
Electricity and Natural Gas
During fiscal year 2018, we used almost 4.1 million megawatt-hours of electricity and natural gas in our North American operations. To reduce electricity consumption, we installed LED fixtures in eight assembly and engine plants during the last two years. For this sizable lighting retrofit project, we selected LED high bay fixtures that deliver an unprecedented 214 lumens per watt, which helps to significantly reduce the amount of electricity required to light certain areas of our facilities. Additionally, the LED lights don’t contain any mercury, making them easier to recycle than fluorescent lamps. We expect the eight plants to be saving an estimated 29 million kilowatt-hours per year and avoiding an estimated 17,000 metric tons of CO2 per year from this retrofit project.
In addition to large projects such as lighting retrofits, our plants implement small measures that impact daily operations and reduce energy consumption. Toyota’s engine plant in Alabama is adding labels to equipment to help team members remember when to turn machines off, for example, on weekends during non-production times. A trial over a single weekend demonstrated the potential of these labels – the plant could save 3.7 million kilowatt-hours and avoid 2,000 metric tons of CO2 over the course of a year if all equipment is turned off every weekend.
Renewable energy comes from naturally occurring sources that are not depleted because of consumption. Sunlight, wind, biomass and geothermal are common examples. Renewable energy sources can replace conventional fuels used for electricity generation and transportation.
We are expanding the use of renewable energy as a means of reducing our carbon footprint and our reliance on non-renewable energy sources. For example, Toyota’s assembly plant in San Antonio, Texas, installed a 200-kilowatt ground-mount solar array to support the Visitor and Education Center and Family Health Center, and a 3.1 megawatt array on the roof of the assembly plant building, which is expected to generate around 3 percent of the plant’s annual demand.
In addition to the Texas assembly plant, Toyota also receives renewable electricity from solar arrays at our Plano, Texas, headquarters campus; the parts center in Ontario, California; and the assembly plant in Tecate, Mexico. Combined with other renewable energy projects such as using landfill gas at our assembly plant in Kentucky, Toyota consumed or offset almost 54 million kilowatt-hours of renewable energy in fiscal year 2018.
Toyota’s assembly plant in San Antonio, Texas, installed a 200-kilowatt ground-mount solar array to support the Visitor and Education Center and the Family Health Center.
A 3.1 megawatt solar array was also installed on the roof of the assembly plant building. These panels are expected to generate around 3 percent of the plant’s annual demand.
Toyota’s Tri-Gen Renewable Power and Hydrogen Generation Station
TMNA is building the world’s first megawatt-scale molten carbonate power generation, hydrogen fuel, and pure water-producing system. Bio-waste sourced from California agricultural waste will generate water, electricity and hydrogen. The Tri-Gen facility will support our vehicle logistics operations at the Port of Long Beach.
When it comes online in 2020, Tri-Gen will generate approximately 2.35 megawatts of electricity and 1.2 tons of hydrogen per day, enough to power the equivalent of about 2,350 average-sized homes and meet the daily driving needs of nearly 1,500 vehicles. The power generation facility will be 100 percent renewable, supplying Toyota’s vehicle logistics operation at the Port and making it the first Toyota facility in North America to use 100 percent renewable power. Tri-Gen is a major step forward toward meeting our 2050 Environmental Challenge to achieve net zero CO2 emissions from our operations.
Tri-Gen is also a key step forward in Toyota’s work to develop a hydrogen society. In addition to serving as a key proof-of-concept for 100 percent renewable, local hydrogen generation at scale, the facility will supply all Toyota fuel cell electric vehicles moving through the Port, including new deliveries of the Mirai sedan and Toyota’s heavy-duty hydrogen fuel cell electric class 8 truck, known as Project Portal. To support these refueling operations, Toyota is building one of the largest hydrogen fueling stations in the world on site with the help of Shell.
Tri-Gen has been developed by FuelCell Energy with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, California agencies including the California Air Resources Board, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Orange County Sanitation District, and the University of California at Irvine, whose research helped develop the core technology. The facility exceeds California’s strict air quality standards and advances the overall goals of the California Air Resources Board, the California Energy Commission, and the Air Quality Management Districts of the South Coast and the Bay Area, who have been leaders in working to reduce emissions and improve air quality.
According to the International Transport Forum and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), trade-related freight transport emissions will increase by almost a factor of four between 2010 and 2050. Experts project that by 2050, global freight transport emissions will surpass those from passenger vehicles.
To address GHG emissions from Toyota’s extensive logistics operation, TMNA has a target to improve GHG emissions intensity from all owned and third-party logistics by 5 percent from a baseline of FY2016. We are on track for achieving this target. One way we have reduced GHG emissions from logistics is by combining routes. Our manufacturing and service parts divisions decided to share trucks using the same routes. In less than two years, we avoided driving 1.5 million miles, which saved an estimated 2,300 metric tons of CO2.
Toyota Transport, our in-house trucking carrier for completed vehicles, began replacing the auto hauler truck fleet in the spring of 2018. New trucks are equipped with more fuel-efficient engines that are expected to improve fuel economy by 16 percent.
Toyota Transport (truck carrier) and Toyota Logistics Services (shipper) continue to participate in U.S. EPA’s SmartWay® Transport Partnership, a market-driven partnership aimed at helping businesses move goods in the cleanest, most efficient way possible. One of the main purposes of SmartWay is to improve fuel efficiency and reduce GHG emissions from the movement of goods.
Project Portal 2.0
In June 2018, Toyota unveiled the second generation of our hydrogen fuel cell electric Class 8 truck during the Center for Automotive Research (CAR) Management Briefing Seminars in northern Michigan. The new truck, known internally as "Beta," expands on the capabilities of Toyota’s first Project Portal test vehicle by increasing the estimated range to more than 300 miles per fill. The truck also enhances versatility and maneuverability with the addition of a sleeper cab and a unique fuel cabinet combination that further increases cab space without increasing wheelbase.
Since it first began operation in April 2017, the Project Portal “Alpha” truck has logged nearly 10,000 miles of testing and real-world drayage operations in and around the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles, all while emitting nothing but water vapor. The Beta vehicle began drayage operations in the fall of 2018, increasing the Ports’ zero-emission trucking capacity and further reducing the environmental impact of drayage operations.
Project Portal 2.0 builds on the lessons learned from the Alpha vehicle. The first heavy-duty truck was the result of a true skunkworks effort within Toyota that moved from initial concept to a fully capable drayage truck driving silently out of a Michigan garage in just over a year. Engineers and technicians worked long hours to reconfigure the wire harnesses, electronics and other components of two off-the-lot Mirai fuel cell electric cars to create one of the world’s first OEM-built zero-emission heavy trucks.
The results of their work continue to impress. With a gross combined weight capacity of 80,000 pounds and a driving range of more than 200 miles per fill, the 670-plus horsepower Alpha truck produces 1,325 pound-feet of torque from two Mirai fuel cell stacks and a 12 kWh battery. Project Portal Beta maintains these torque and horsepower numbers while also extending the range of the vehicle and pushing forward on other key performance metrics.
Toyota unveiled the second generation of its hydrogen fuel cell electric Class 8 truck in Michigan in June 2018. The new truck, known internally as "Beta," expands on the capabilities of Toyota’s first Project Portal test vehicle by increasing the estimated range to more than 300 miles per fill.
Toyota’s focus on innovation goes beyond our vehicle technology. Consider the state-of-the-art renewable energy system at our North American headquarters campus in Plano, Texas.
About 20,000 solar panels cover all four parking garages as part of an 8.79-megawatt solar system designed and installed by SunPower. Placing the solar panels on the rooftops of the parking garages protects the vehicles parked on the top level of the garages from the sun and from rain and hail, and the panels are pitched to direct water to the campus’ rainwater collection cisterns.
The solar panels were manufactured at SunPower’s plant that is certified LEED Gold® and is verified by NSF Sustainability as landfill-free, which means the facility prevents 99 percent or more of its waste from entering landfills. The panels manufactured at this plant were the first ever to become Cradle to Cradle Certified™ Silver, demonstrating a product’s level of achievement in the areas of material health, material reutilization, renewable energy and carbon management, water stewardship, and social fairness.
“Manufacturing SunPower® solar panels in an environmentally sustainable way is just as important to us as it is to our customers like Toyota,” explained Marc Gordon, director of national accounts for SunPower. “SunPower offers industry-leading solar technology that generates 45 percent more energy from the same space over the first 25 years compared to conventional solar panels. For Toyota, this means more savings on electricity bills and a lower carbon footprint over the long life of the system.”
The system is the largest on-site corporate solar installation among non-utility companies in the state of Texas. In total, the system provides about one-third of the daily electric needs for the headquarters campus and reduces annual carbon dioxide emissions by 7,198 metric tons, or the equivalent of the electricity used by almost 1,200 average U.S. homes for a year.
A flexible energy contract is in place to preserve and resell excess power generation (for example, power generated on weekends) back to the grid.
That’s not all. Additional grid energy consumed by the campus is being offset by Texas wind farm renewable energy credits. Other features, such as LED lights and high efficiency building shells, help cut down on the amount of energy used on campus. Rooftops on select buildings were specially designed with plant life to manage rainwater, reduce heat and further insulate the buildings. These features were all instrumental in the campus earning LEED Platinum® certification from the U.S. Green Building Council.
“We are very happy with the way the energy system functions here at headquarters,” said David Absher, senior manager of Environmental Sustainability at TMNA. “This is an excellent example of how to apply environmental sustainability in the real world. And it’s moving us closer to achieving the Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050, which calls for eliminating carbon emissions in all operations.”
About 20,000 solar panels cover all four parking garages as part of an 8.79-megawatt solar system at Toyota headquarters in Plano. The system is the largest on-site corporate solar installation among non-utility companies in the state of Texas. In total, the system provides about one-third of the daily electric needs for the headquarters campus and reduces annual carbon dioxide emissions by 7,198 metric tons.
We know that reducing our own carbon footprint isn’t enough. Achieving a low carbon future requires collaboration with a wide range of stakeholders. That’s why we support community initiatives to help scale up efforts to develop and use more sustainable forms of energy. The Toyota Canada Foundation (TCF) provides funding to Actua, Canada’s largest science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) outreach organization. Actua delivers national programs designed to reach and inspire youth who are currently underrepresented in STEM, encouraging them to pursue education and careers in the field. Every year, the organization’s programs reach over 250,000 youth in more than 500 communities across the country. In 2017, TCF supported Actua’s Innovation150 Maker Mobile tour, providing traveling science and technology exhibitions and workshops to children across Canada. One workshop took the young participants through a prototyping exercise to design their car of the future, including an exploration of the impact of resources and the changing climate on the automotive industry. From material considerations to fuel consumption and emissions, they examined the challenges involved with building their vehicles, while also considering how current technology could be used to solve common environmental issues.
Additional examples of community initiatives:
- We foster adoption of next-generation vehicles through education initiatives and by working with various partners to develop hydrogen fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles.
- Toyota Canada Inc. is the exclusive automotive sponsor of the University of Alberta EcoCar Team (see photos and caption below). The sponsorship supports the development of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles.
- We support the annual ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship, which provides $50,000 each to young professors and scholars pursuing innovative electrochemical research in green energy technology.
We also work with suppliers and dealerships on projects that reduce their carbon footprints. We are engaging with logistics suppliers to reduce GHG emissions from transporting parts and vehicles, and we have supported 61 dealerships across North America with achieving LEED® certification. LEED®, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is a point-based system promoting a whole-building approach to sustainable construction and remodeling. LEED® certification is based on meeting stringent requirements in sustainable site development, energy efficiency, water savings, materials selection and indoor environmental quality.
Toyota Canada sponsored the University of Alberta’s EcoCar team that competed in the hydrogen fuel cell UrbanConcept and Prototype categories at the 2018 Shell Eco Marathon in Sonoma, California. The University of Alberta team was the only team to design and build their own fuel cell stack.