In this section, we provide data related to TMNA's environmental performance.





Hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide — all byproducts of fuel combustion — are linked to various air quality issues such as smog formation as well as various health effects. Limiting criteria pollutant emissions from our vehicle tailpipes help to reduce some of the environmental impacts of driving.


The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the state of California have certification programs to categorize vehicles in terms of their level of tailpipe emissions, and Environment and Climate Change Canada has issued Tier 3 regulations aligned with the final U.S. Tier 3 rule.


While the EPA Tier 3 and California Low Emission Vehicle III (LEV III) regulations have different nomenclature for categorizing vehicle emissions, the bins include the same vehicle emission groupings. For the 2020 model year, EPA Tier 3 and California LEV III regulations required an auto manufacturer’s fleet average to meet an emission standard for non-methane organic gas with nitrogen oxides (NMOG + NOx) of 0.065 g/mi for passenger cars and light-duty trucks up to 3,750 pounds, and 0.074 for other light-duty trucks. The regulations set declining emission standards from 2017 through 2025, when the NMOG + NOx average for both sets of vehicles will become 0.030 g/mi.


The EPA Tier 3 vehicle standards were intended to be harmonized with California's Low Emission Vehicle program and create a federal vehicle emissions program that allows automakers to sell the same vehicles in all 50 states.


Toyota's goal is to maintain flexibility to build vehicles based on customer preferences. In setting tailpipe emission regulations, we believe standards should be performance-based and consider the interaction with other vehicle rules — such as fuel economy/greenhouse gas standards — to ensure the total package of requirements is effective and acceptable to the consumer. Fuels must be considered with vehicle technologies as a holistic system. Reduced sulfur levels in gasoline, required by the federal Tier 3 and California LEV III programs, are enabling the after-treatment systems being designed for compliance.


Toyota annually complies with the state of California, U.S. and Canadian vehicle criteria pollutant emissions standards.


The 2021 "Greenest List”, published by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), names the Toyota Prius Prime, Toyota RAV4 Prime AWD, and Toyota Corolla Hybrid as three of the greenest vehicles of the year. ACEEE evaluated more than 1,000 models and awards each car with a Green Score based on an environmental damage index (EDX), which reflects the cost to human health from air pollution associated with vehicle manufacturing and disposal, the production and distribution of fuel or electricity, and vehicle tailpipes.




The primary concern with non-greenhouse gas air emissions is smog. Smog is formed as particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight. Smog has been linked to several health issues and is particularly prevalent in dense urban areas with heavy traffic, industrial activity and sunny, warm climates.

Vehicle body painting operations generate most of Toyota's VOC emissions. Toyota's North American manufacturing plants measure grams of VOCs emitted per square meter of vehicle surface area coated (g/m2). VOC emissions from vehicle body painting decreased 4 percent between fiscal years 2020 and 2021, due in part to decreased production during the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect VOC emissions to continue to decrease as we further improve transfer efficiency and launch additional water-borne paint systems.






As sites apply for certification of their conservation programs with Wildlife Habitat Council (WHC), they work with a WHC biologist to take an inventory of species onsite. This inventory includes any species listed by federal law as endangered or threatened. In addition to the 15 sites with WHC-certified programs, we assess new sites for the presence of endangered and protected species.


“Protecting Species”

Includes Toyota-owned sites in operation as of September 1, 2021
Toyota Site Endangered, Threatened, or Protected Species Law/Regulation Activities
All TMNA sites in North America Monarch butterfly On December 15, 2020, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced that listing the monarch as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act is warranted, but precluded by higher priority listing actions. The monarch is now a candidate under the Endangered Species Act and its status will be reviewed annually until a listing decision is made. See BIODIVERSITY/Biodiversity Targets
Manufacturing plant in Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico)

Ceanothus verrucosus (a medicinal shrub)

Crotalus ruber (a native rattlesnake)

Linx rufus (bobcat)

Lepus californicus (black–tailed jackrabbit)

Ferocactus gracilis (fire barrel cactus)

Cylindropuntia californica (California cholla)

Protected by Mexico’s Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT) under NOM–059–SEMARNAT–2010 These species are found on 143 acres of the site’s property that are protected as a wildlife preserve.
Manufacturing plants in Cambridge and Woodstock, Ontario (Canada) Tree Swallow Protected by the Migratory Birds Convention Act Installed 71 bird boxes at Toyota's assembly plants in Cambridge and Woodstock, Ontario.
Engine plant in Huntsville, Alabama Alabama cave shrimp Protected by the U.S. Endangered Species Act Cave shrimp are found in an area of the site that is not disturbed by site operations or activities.
Assembly and unit plant in Georgetown, Kentucky

Solidago shortii (short's goldenrod)

Myotis sodalist (Indiana bat)

Protected by the U.S. Endangered Species Act Planted Short's Goldenrod along a one–mile nature trail onsite
Vehicle logistics site at the Port of Portland, Oregon Coho Salmon Protected by the U.S. Endangered Species Act Salmon Safe certified; site maintains a bioswale and storm water pollution prevention program; team members participate in annual cleanup of the Willamette River




TMNA has begun an analysis to determine whether sites are in a protected area, critical habitat or biodiversity hotspot (see below for definitions of these terms). We started with our largest facilities, those that have Conservation Certification from Wildlife Habitat Council, and those under construction or undergoing major renovations. In the table above, we only include the sites that meet one or more of these criteria. We will be analyzing additional sites going forward, and the information will be used to inform our biodiversity strategy and project selection.


A Protected Area is defined as a geographic area that is designated, regulated or managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. (GRI Standards Glossary 2016)


Critical Habitat is a term defined and used in the U.S. Endangered Species Act. It is a specific geographic area(s) containing physical or biological features that are essential for the conservation of a threatened or endangered species and that may require special management and protection. Critical habitat may include an unoccupied area(s) if it is determined to be essential for the conservation of the species.


A Biodiversity Hotspot is defined as an area that meets two criteria: It must have at least 1,500 vascular plants as endemics — which is to say, it must have a high percentage of plant life found nowhere else on the planet; and it must have 30 percent or less of its original natural vegetation.


Biodiversity hotspots represent just 2.3 percent of Earth’s land surface, but they support more than half of the world’s endemic plant species and nearly 43 percent of endemic bird, mammal, reptile and amphibian species.


Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) maintains a list of hotspots by region. CEPF is a joint initiative of l’Agence Française de Développement, Conservation International, the European Union, the Global Environment Facility, the Government of Japan, the MacArthur Foundation and the World Bank.


“Restoring Habitats”

P03 / Toyota Sites in or Adjacent to a Protected Area, Critical Habitat or Biodiversity Hotspot
Includes Toyota-owned sites in operation as of September 1, 2021
Site Name Location Type of Operation Protected Area, Critical Habitat and/or Biodiversity Hotspot
TMMBC Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico) Manufacturing Hotspot: California Floristic Province; Protected area: Wildlife Preserve
TMMC Woodstock, Ontario (Canada) Manufacturing Protected Area: Vansittart Woods wetlands
TABC Long Beach, California Manufacturing Hotspot: California Floristic Province
Gardena Technical Center Gardena, California R&D Hotspot: California Floristic Province
LA Parts Distribution Center Los Angeles, California Parts logistics Hotspot: California Floristic Province
TLS Long Beach Port of Long Beach, California Vehicle logistics Hotspot: California Floristic Province
San Ramon Regional Office and Parts Distribution Center San Ramon, California Parts logistics Hotspot: California Floristic Province
North American Parts Center California Ontario, California Parts logistics Hotspot: California Floristic Province
TLS Portland Port of Portland, Oregon Vehicle logistics Critical Habitat for Soho Salmon
TAPG Phoenix, Arizona Proving ground Critical Habitat for Yellow-billed Cuckoo




Wildlife Habitat Council® (WHC) partners with corporations, fellow conservation organizations, government agencies and community members to empower and recognize wildlife habitat and conservation education programs. WHC's voluntary certification standard, Conservation Certification, is designed for broad-based biodiversity enhancement and conservation education activities on corporate landholdings.


Our partnership with WHC began in 1999 when Toyota joined WHC's membership. In 2008, the conservation program at our Kentucky assembly plant became Toyota's first WHC certification. Today, programs at 15 Toyota sites have achieved Conservation Certifications and in 2020, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas won WHC’s Invasive Species Project Award for feral hog management.

P04 / Wildlife Habitat Council Conservation Certifications
Certifications as of September 1, 2021.
Toyota Site Name Certification level
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Texas Gold
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, West Virginia Gold
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada, Cambridge Gold
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada, Woodstock Silver
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Alabama Silver
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky Silver
Toyota Technical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan Silver
Toyota Technical Center, York Township, Michigan Silver
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Indiana Certified
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Mississippi Certified
Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Tennessee Certified
Toyota Arizona Proving Grounds Certified
TMNA Headquarters in Plano, Texas Certified
Production and Engineering Manufacturing Center, Kentucky Certified
Toyota Logistics Services in Portland, Oregon Certified





This chart shows GHG performance of Toyota’s U.S. vehicle fleet under the U.S. EPA GHG program. The annual GHG compliance values account for real-world GHG benefits from off-cycle technologies, such as air conditioning and aerodynamic improvements, not observed over the official tailpipe CO2 testing conditions.

Follow this link for more information about the U.S. EPA GHG program.


The Canadian federal government has established GHG emissions regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act for the 2011‐2025 model years. To date, Toyota has met the regulatory obligations regarding vehicle CO2 emissions in Canada for each model year.

Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) named three Toyota vehicles as best-in-class for fuel efficiency for the 2021 model year: Toyota Corolla Hybrid (Compact car), Toyota Highlander Hybrid AWD (Standard Sport Utility Vehicle), and Toyota Sienna (Minivan). Best-in-class vehicles have the lowest combined fuel consumption rating, based on 55 percent city and 45 percent highway driving.




Total energy consumption in North America decreased by 6 percent in fiscal year 2021 compared to the previous year. This is due in part to the plants shutting down for eight weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic. Energy efficiency projects resulted in energy savings of 105,000 MWh.


Energy intensity, measured in MWh of energy consumed per vehicle produced, was 2.23 in fiscal year 2021.


Energy data is compiled primarily from electricity and natural gas invoices. For mobile sources, either fuel consumption or miles traveled is tracked.

Scope: Toyota North American manufacturing, R&D, owned logistics, offices
  FY2020 FY2021
Non-renewable Electricity 1,670,000 1,535,000
Renewable Electricity 60,000 62,000
Natural Gas in Stationary Sources 2,050,000 1,938,000
Fuels used in Mobile Sources 78,700 74,000
TOTAL ENERGY 3,700858 3,609,000




Total Scope 1 and 2 CO2 emissions have decreased 8 percent between fiscal years 2020 and 2021 and 22 percent since fiscal year 2016. The decrease from the previous year is due in part to reduced operations during the COVID-19 pandemic, but over the last five years, the decrease can also be attributed to energy efficiency improvements, investments in renewable energy, and changes in production volumes and model mix.


TMNA uses The GHG Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, Revised Edition (published by WBCSD and WRI) to develop the emissions inventory. TMNA follows the financial control approach.


Gases included in Scopes 1 and 2 include CO2


Scope 1 sources include stationary combustion (such as burning natural gas for energy) as well as owned mobile sources (such as Toyota-owned fleet vehicles and owned logistics trucks).


Scope 2 emissions include consumption of purchased electricity from Toyota sites in North America. Scope 2 emissions are calculated using the location-based approach. Indirect emissions from electricity used at Toyota's U.S. locations are calculated using EPA eGRID emission factors. For sites in Canada, provincial emission factors are sourced from Canada's National Inventory Report, and for Mexico, a country-specific emission factor is sourced from Carbon Footprint Country Specific Electricity Grid Greenhouse Gas Emissions Factors v1.4, September 2020. Where renewable electricity is purchased, an emission factor of zero is assumed.


Toyota does not purchase steam.


Three of Toyota's U.S. manufacturing plants are required to report GHG emissions data under U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Individual plant data for our plants in Kentucky, Texas and Indiana are available on EPA's website through its online data publication tool.


In Canada, Toyota’s Cambridge and Woodstock plants are required to report under Environment Canada and Climate Change's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Program and Output Based Pricing System; both plants are also required to report GHG emissions to the province of Ontario under its Environmental Protection Act.


Operations CO2 Emissions

P08 / GHG Emissions
Scope: Toyota North American manufacturing, R&D, owned logistics, offices Unit: Metric Tons CO2
  FY2016 FY2017 FY2018 FY2019 FY2020 FY2021 FY2021 Target
Scope 1 395,000 391,000 434,000 434,000 409,000 387,000 n/a
Scope 2 897,000 911,000 895,000 783,000 697,000 627,000 n/a
TOTAL 1,292,000 1,302,000 1,329,000 1,217,000 1,106,000 1,014,000 1,098,200

This chart shows total Scope 1 and 2 CO2 emissions in metric tons CO2 divided by North American vehicle production. CO2 intensity per vehicle produced increased by 2 percent in fiscal year 2021 compared to the previous year but decreased 4 percent from fiscal year 2016. The changes in efficiency are due to improvements in energy and GHG efficiency and changes in production volumes and model mix.

Operations CO2 Emissions



This target measures GHG emissions intensity from owned and third-party trucking, rail, air and marine logistics used to transport U.S. service parts, accessories and vehicles. Intensity is measured in grams of CO2e per ton-kilometer, which corresponds to the transport of one ton over a distance of one kilometer. The baseline year is fiscal year 2016. While logistics GHG intensity increased 0.6 percent in fiscal year 2021 compared to the previous year, it decreased 6 percent from the baseline year, due in part to reduced operations and sales during the COVID-19 pandemic, but also to improvements in fuel efficiency and an increase in the use of alternative fuels implemented over the past five years.

Carbon Targets





Many of Toyota's activities in vehicle development, manufacturing and logistics are subject to local, state, provincial and federal laws that regulate chemical management, air emissions, water discharges, storm water management, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste treatment and disposal. These regulations vary by facility based on the type of equipment operated and the functions performed.


In Figure P11, Toyota reports those environmental violations considered significant, meaning those resulting in fines of $5,000 or more and in an impact to the environment. In fiscal year 2021, our North American manufacturing plants and logistics sites had zero significant environmental regulatory violations. In September 2020, Toyota paid a civil penalty of $273,888 to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for a regulatory violation of Section 5 inventory requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that occurred during 2019. The violation did not result in an impact to the environment.


While there were no significant environmental violations in the last fiscal year, in January 2021, Toyota paid a civil penalty of $180 million to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to resolve investigations stemming from a self-reported process gap in fulfilling certain emissions defect information reporting requirements under the Clean Air Act. The reporting gap occurred between 2005 and 2015. As a countermeasure, Toyota has put robust reporting and compliance processes in place.

P11 / Environmental Compliance


  Significant Environmental Violations
FY17 0
FY18 0
FY19 0
FY20 0
FY21 0





The Toyota and Lexus brand divisions provide guidance to dealerships on sustainable strategies to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) certification. LEED® is administered by the U.S. and Canadian Green Building Councils and is based on meeting stringent requirements in sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality. As of July 2021, 69 Toyota and Lexus dealerships in the U.S., Canada and Mexico have achieved LEED certification for the construction and renovation of their sales and service areas.



P12 / Toyota / Lexus LEED® Dealerships
*As of July 2021, 69 Toyota and Lexus dealerships - 61 in the U.S., 7 in Canada and 1 in Mexico - have earned LEED® certification. If a dealership has multiple buildings certified, we counted the dealership only once.
  Toyota Lexus
Platinum 5 0
Gold 20 3
Silver 16 3
Certified 17 5
Total 58 11




Environmental management systems are an essential part of Toyota’s overall effort to minimize risks and achieve leading levels of environmental performance. An environmental management system (EMS) provides a framework for identifying significant environmental aspects and impacts and setting corresponding controls, goals and targets to manage and reduce these impacts over time. The facilities listed in the chart have had their environmental management systems third-party certified to ISO 14001, the International Organization for Standardization’s standard for designing and implementing an effective environmental management system.


P13 / ISO 14001 Certifications of Toyota’s North American Facilities
*List of certified sites in North America as of July 2021.
  Location Original Certification Date
Manufacturing Plants Huntsville, Alabama 2005
  Long Beach, California 1998
  Princeton, Indiana 1999
  Georgetown, Kentucky 1998
  Troy, Missouri 1998
  Blue Springs, Mississippi 2012
  Jackson, Tennessee 2007
  San Antonio, Texas 2008
  Buffalo, West Virginia 2000
  Woodstock, Ontario (Canada) 2009
  Cambridge, Ontario (Canada) 1998
  Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico) 2006
  Apaseo el Grande, Guanajuato (Mexico) 2021
Vehicle Distribution Centers Montreal, Quebec 2003
Parts Distribution Center Toronto, Ontario 2001
  Vancouver, British Columbia 2002
Sales and Regional Offices Canadian Sales Headquarters in Toronto, Ontario 2001
  Pacific Regional Office and TFS 2002
  Quebec Regional Office and TFS 2005
  Prairie Regional Office and TFS 2008
  Atlantic Regional Office and TFS 2006




Seventeen Toyota and Lexus facilities have achieved Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) certification. LEED® is a point-based system administered by the U.S. and Canadian Green Building Councils promoting a whole-building approach to sustainable construction and remodeling. LEED certification is based on meeting stringent requirements in sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality. Ranging from office space to vehicle distribution centers, these facilities represent Toyota’s continued efforts to improve the design and efficiency of all operations. Toyota Motor North America is a platinum member of the U.S. Green Building Council.


Toyota has three projects that are pursuing LEED certification: the renovation of the vehicle logistics facility at the Port of Long Beach in California, the newly constructed visitor center at the assembly plant in Mississippi, and the new parts distribution center in Clarington, Ontario.


“Building for the Future”

BD+C = Building Design + Construction ID+C = Interior Design + Construction O+M = Operations and Maintenance


Toyota Financial Services West Chandler, Arizona 2021 ID+C Gold
Toyota Financial Services East Alpharetta, Georgia 2021 ID+C Silver
Production Engineering & Manufacturing Center Georgetown, Kentucky 2019 BD+C Platinum
Toyota Supplier Center York Township, Michigan 2019 BD+C Platinum
Centro de Entrenamiento Toyota San Luis Pozos, Mexico 2018 O+M, Platinum
Toyota Motor North America Headquarters
(Office Towers, High Bay Evaluation Building, Vehicle Delivery Center)
Plano, Texas 2017 BD+C Platinum
Chicago Service Training Center Aurora, Illinois 2015 BD+C Gold
Lexus Eastern Area Office Parsippany, New Jersey 2014 ID+C Platinum
Toyota Kansas City Training Center Kansas City, Missouri 2012 BD+C Gold
Toyota Inland Empire Training Center Rancho Cucamonga, California 2010 ID+C Gold
Toyota Technical Center York Township, Michigan 2010 BD+C Gold
Toyota Racing Development North Carolina Salisbury, North Carolina 2010 BD+C Certified
Lexus Florida Training Center Miramar, Florida 2009 ID+C Gold
Toyota Phoenix Training Center Phoenix, Arizona 2009 ID+C Silver
North America Production Support Center Georgetown, Kentucky 2006 ID+C Silver
Toyota Motor North America, Inc. Washington, D.C. 2016 ID+C Silver
Portland Vehicle Distribution Center Portland, Oregon 2004 BD+C Gold





Waste data is collected on a calendar year basis. In 2020, Toyota's North American manufacturing plants, R&D centers, logistics sites and offices generated 713.8 million pounds of waste. This is a 4 percent decrease from 2019, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in our plants shutting down for eight weeks and our offices remaining closed through most of 2020.


We recycled, reused or composted 93.2 percent of all waste in 2020. Only 1.5 percent was sent to landfills for disposal (for certain waste streams, landfill disposal is required by law), and 5.3 percent was incinerated or used for fuels blending or waste-to-energy.

“Eliminating Waste”


Scope = Toyota's North American headquarters, manufacturing, R&D, sales and logistics sites in the U.S., Canada and Puerto Rico. Also includes data from manufacturing in Mexico. Data from non-manufacturing sites in Mexico will be included in future years. Data excludes construction and demolition waste from new construction and expansion projects.

P15 / Total Waste (Pounds)
*Regulated waste includes hazardous, universal and special wastes regulated at the federal, state, provincial or local level. Non-regulated waste is all other waste. **WTE = waste to energy
  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Regulated Waste*          
Recycled/Reused Regulated Waste 4,570,000 4,879,000 4,499,000 5,763,000 4,844,000
Incineration, WTE**, Fuels Blending 7,247,000 11,599,000 11,843,000 11,070,000 9,166,000
Landfill 692,000 33,000 0 0 0
Non-Regulated Waste Regulated Waste*        
Composted 831,000 1,080,000 908,000 999,000 722,000
Recycled Scrap Steel from Mfg Plants 678,953,000 656,129,000 696,759,000 599,387,000 594,062,000
Other Recycled/Reused 87,805,000 79,940,000 79,800,000 82,864,000 65,712,000
Incineration, WTE**, Fuels Blending 33,933,000 29,314,000 32,081,000 31,888,000 28,572,000
Landfill 8,081,000 16,995,000 13,363,000 13,835,000 10,765,000









In fiscal year 2021, Toyota withdrew 1.5 billion gallons of water at North American facilities, including manufacturing plants, R&D centers, parts and vehicle distribution centers, service training centers and offices. This represents a 14 percent decrease from the previous year, due in part to plant shutdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Only 8 percent of water withdrawal occurred in an area of "high" or "extremely high" water stress.


More than 95 percent of total water withdrawal came from municipal sources (both fresh and recycled water from utilities); the remaining withdrawals came from surface water bodies, groundwater and rainwater.


We estimate 1.2 billion gallons were discharged, either to surface waters or to municipal utilities.


Consumption (defined as withdrawal minus discharge, or the water that was not returned to either a municipal utility or surface or ground water) was 287.9 million gallons.


Water withdrawal volumes were compiled primarily from water utility invoices. For rainwater, measurements are taken from the collection units.


Water discharge is either measured by meter or, in the case of non-production facilities, estimated based on occupancy.

“Conserving Water”


Scope: Toyota North American manufacturing, R&D, owned logistics, offices
*Water-stressed areas have been identified with WRI's AqueductTM Water Risk Atlas 3.0 and include sites with overall risk scores of "high" and "extremely high."


P16 / Water (Gallons)
Scope: Toyota North American manufacturing, R&D, owned logistics, offices *Water-stressed areas have been identified with WRI's AqueductTM Water Risk Atlas 3.0 and include sites with overall risk scores of "high" and "extremely high."
  FY2019 FY2020 FY2021 FY2021 Water-Stressed Areas*
Water Withdrawal 1,806,964,000 1,766,238,000 1,526,868,000 126,346,000
Water Discharge 1,136,206,000 1,171,907,000 1,238,972,000 70,650,000
Water Consumption 670,758,000 594,331,000 287,896,000 55,696,000